This theory was accepted by the 19th-century German classicist Arnold Heeren who said that: "In the Greek geographers, for instance, we read of two islands, named Tyrus or Tylos, and Aradus, which boasted that they were the mother country of the Phoenicians, and exhibited relics of Phoenician temples." Bahrain was also the site of worship of an ox deity called Awal.
The latter were tribes returning to the Arabian side of the Persian Gulf from Persian territories in the north who were known as Huwala (literally: those that have changed or moved).
In 1330, the archipelago became a tributary state of the rulers of Hormuz, In 1521, the Portuguese allied with Hormuz and seized Bahrain from the Jabrid ruler Muqrin ibn Zamil, who was killed during the takeover.
Portuguese rule lasted for around 80 years, during which time they depended mainly on Sunni Persian governors.
From the 6th to 3rd century BC, Bahrain was part of the Persian Empire ruled by the Achaemenian dynasty.
By about 250 BC, Parthia brought the Persian Gulf under its control and extended its influence as far as Oman.